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It was mostly used on clothes and other accoutrements, as codified in the mid-14th century by pseudo-Kodinos in his Book of Offices. save. At any rate, the use of the dragon as an image is attested well into the 14th century. [2] [1] Various large aristocratic families did employ certain symbols to identify themselves;[1] the use of the cross, and of icons of Christ, the Theotokos and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were often personal rather than family emblems. Roman Empire Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor Constantine the Great.In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. [80][81] Further insignia of this type included the eutychia or ptychia (εὐτυχία or πτυχία), which probably bore some representation of Victory. It may have resulted from modifications to the draco or the vexillum, but it appears in its final form in the Stratēgikon, composed of a square or rectangular field with streamers attached. Indeed, Western portolans of the 14th–15th centuries use the double-headed eagle (silver/golden on red/vermilion) as the symbol of Trebizond rather than Constantinople. Data Proportions: 1" x 1" Date Used: 1261-1460 Maurice further recommends that the flag of the centre meros, led by the deputy commander (hypostratēgos), should be more conspicuous than those of the other merē, and that the flag of the commanding general (or the emperor, if he was present) should be the most conspicuous of all. During the Byzantine Roman Empire 324-1453 there is a variety of imperial, state and navy flags, symbols and emblems in use always with the common elements of the cross and the double-headed eagle.The cross was the official flag of the Byzantine state. Nevertheless, as Philip Grierson points out, the use of letters by the Greeks as symbols was a long-established practice, and their identifications as firesteels by Kodinos probably reflects Western influence. However, this most likely represents a design that was created after her emigration to Italy. [11][12] The date of its adoption by the Byzantines has been hotly debated by scholars. This thread is archived. Under Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963–969) large crosses of gold and jewels were used as standards, perhaps carried on a pole or otherwise displayed on the flags. Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire from 330-1204 and 1261-1453. [66] Its origin and evolution are unknown. [62], The Late Roman army in the late 3rd century continued to use the insignia usual to the Roman legions: the eagle-tipped aquila, the square vexillum, and the imago (the bust of the emperor on a pole). [9] It continued in use in bas-reliefs in churches and funerary monuments until well into the 11th century, however. The city of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) was founded by Roman emperor Constantine I in 324 CE and it acted as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire as it has later become known, for well over 1,000 years. The eagle holds a romfea at the right and a sphere (world) at the left, symbolizing the secular and spiritual character of the Empire, while the heads of the eagle look at right and left symbolizing the Imperial dominion from East to West. The towers, domes and palaces were enclosed by the complex. One of the most sophisticated buildings in Constantinople was the formidable complex of defenses. the Byzantine Empire that were connected to Constantinople. The double-headed eagle existed also as a flag of the Empire in the late centuries but mostly as an Imperial emblem. Since the 4th century, crosses with quartered letters are known, especially from coinage, forming the acronyms of various invocations, e.g. The Byzantine Empire was one of the most interesting, unique and mysterious civilizations in world history. The main field of the flag is a shade known as Tyrian purple (actually closer to magenta in colour) which was worn Roman Emperors. [70] The accuracy of the designs shown in the Madrid Skylitzes, in particular, is doubtful: while they may give a good general idea of how flags looked like, the flags themselves are "simplified and schematised", and the illustrators do not bother to differentiate between the flags shown for the Byzantines and for their enemies; even the Saracens are shown as flying a flag topped with a cross. Language For a survey of the evidence available at the time, cf. Today in History [83][85], Pseudo-Kodinos also enumerates various banners and insignia used in imperial processions: one named archistratēgos (ἀρχιστράτηγος, "chief general"); another with images of renowned prelates and eight streamers known as oktapodion (ὀκταπόδιον, "octopus"); another in the form of a cross with the images of St. Demetrius, St. Procopius, St. Theodore Tiro and St. Theodore Stratelates; another depicting St. George on horseback; another in the shape of a dragon (δρακόνειον, drakoneion); and another with the emperor on horseback. Although this was based on no evidence whatsoever, this view gained wide acceptance and circulation. Above the eagle, is a crown, and the background colour of the flag is yellow or gold. Map Eagle-topped scepters were a frequent feature of consular diptychs, and appear on coins until the reign of Philippikos Bardanes(r. 711… — Flag of the "Empire of Constantinople" as described at Conoscimiento de todos los reynos (14th Century). ). [86] A pair of each existed, and were carried in processions, while on campaign, one or two copies were taken along, depending on the size of the imperial escort. It was also adopted in Serbia, with slight changes.The interpretation of the emblem's symbolism hinges on the identification of the four devices either as letters or as firesteels, a dispute where even contemporary sources are inconsistent. — Byzantine Imperial Flag, standard, Official Flag of the Empire. There was a myth telling a story about a giant eagle (more likely with two heads) that was retributive of injustice. This Constantinople, circa A flag is wind- and weather-resistant and highly durable. [57] Only from the 12th century onwards, when the Empire came in increased contact with Westerners because of the Crusades, did heraldry begin to be used among Byzantines. [38], The double-headed eagle with the Palaiologos family monogram (ΠΑΛΓ), from Demetrios Palaiologos' personal bible. Shop high-quality unique Byzantine T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. Facts about Constantinople 7: the sophisticated buildings. According to literary evidence, they were single or double-tailed, while later manuscript illuminations evidence triple-tailed phlamoula. These were always preceded by the skouterios bearing the dibellion (διβέλλιον), the emperor's personal ensign, along with the imperial shield (skouterion), and were followed by the banners of the Despots and other commanders, with the banners of the dēmarchoi (the heads of Constantinople's quarters) bringing up the rear. According to Kodinos, the emperor bore special boots (tzangia) with eagles made of pearls on both shins and on the instep;[21] the Despots wore similar boots of white and purple, and featured pearl-embroidered eagles on their saddles, while the saddle cloth and their tents were white decorated with red eagles. The city was built with an intention of rivaling Rome and eventually becoming the capital of the Roman Empire. (see image above). In the center carries the Vergina Sun, symbolizing the ancient Hellenic spirit and the Olympian values, freedom, democracy, justice, education — in the personal version it carries a monogram for Χαράλαμπος, with the same meaning. Likewise, various emblems (Greek: σημεῖα, sēmeia; sing. [54][52], Relief with the tetragrammatic cross as imperial arms, in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Early 14th-century depiction of Constantinople during the 1204 siege by the Fourth Crusade, Attributed arms of the Latin Empire from the reign of Philip I, who held the title of Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1273–1283, Billon tornese coin from the joint reign of John V Palaiologos and John VI Kantakouzenos (1347–1353), The tetragrammatic cross emblem of the Palaiologos dynasty, from the 15th-century Harley 6163 manuscript, Imperial banner of the Palaiologos dynasty, as recorded by pseudo-Kodinos and one of the Byzantine flags depicted in the Castilian Conosçimiento de todos los reynos (ca. [29][30] The double-headed eagle was used in the breakaway Empire of Trebizond as well, being attested imperial clothes but also on flags. And fall of Constantinople in 1453. [58], The frequent use of the star and crescent moon symbol, which appears on coins, military insignia and, perhaps, as a sometime municipal emblem of the imperial city, appears to be connected to the cult of Hecate Lampadephoros ("light-bearer") in Hellenistic-era Byzantium. pic.twitter.com/4yK8z2FZ7e, Modern Byzantine FlagCharalampos of Thessaloniki Flag, Articles Despite th… Diorama in Askeri Museum, Istanbul, Turkey. Flag size is 5 x 3 Feet ( 100 x 150 cm ) and have 2 D-rings on the left for Hanging on Flag pole or on the wall. quartered "X"s for Σταυρὲ Χριστοῦ χάριν χριστιανούς χάριζε Staurè Christou chárin christianoús chárize ("Cross of Christ bestow grace on the Christians"). It was the largest and the wealthiest city in Europe from the mid-5th century to early 13th century and was popular for its magnificent architectural design. First settled in the seventh century B.C., Constantinople developed into a Along with the double-headed eagle, the tetragrammatic cross was also adopted as part of their family coat of arms by the cadet line of the Palaiologos dynasty ruling in Montferrat. [17] Thus, in the late 12th and throughout the 13th century, the eagle was used in northern Syria and Upper Mesopotamia: the Artuqid sultans of Amida used it as their insigne, the coins of the Zengid dynasty sported it, and Saladin and the Seljuq sultan Kayqubad I likewise used it as a decorative motif in their buildings. Anthem, ©2017-2021 Byzantine Roman Empire 324-1453 up to 2021. iByzantine.com, Terms of Use  |  Privacy Policy  |  About  |  Contact, Double-headed eagle of the Byzantine Empire. Images of flags with crosses quartered with golden discs survive from the 10th century, and a depiction of a flag almost identical to the Palaiologan design is known from the early 13th century.The tetragrammatic cross appears with great frequency in the 14th and 15th centuries: it appears on Byzantine coins during the joint rule of Andronikos II Palaiologos and his son Michael IX Palaiologos, on several Western portolans to designate Constantinople and other Byzantine cities, above one of the windows of the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus. Posted by u/[deleted] 3 years ago. [6], The single-headed Roman imperial eagle continued to be used in Byzantium, although far more rarely. [75] In the 10th century, the cross became a more prominent symbol, and was often used as a finial instead of a spear point. [69], Illuminated chronicles, such as the Madrid Skylitzes, often depict flags conforming to the general bandon type in various colours and designs, but their accuracy is doubtful. [36], Other Balkan states followed the Byzantine model as well: chiefly the Serbians, but also the Bulgarians and Albania under George Kastrioti (better known as Skanderbeg), while after 1472 the eagle was adopted by Muscovy and then Russia. [35] Likewise, the small Byzantine Principality of Theodoro in the Crimea, whose rulers conducted marriage alliances with both the Palaiologoi and the Grand Komnenoi, also used the double-headed eagle in the 15th century. — Byzantine Imperial Flag, standard, Official Flag of the Empire.— Flag of the "Empire of Constantinople" as described at Conoscimiento de todos los reynos (14th Century). Flag of Constantinople. [24][25] According to a handful of surviving examples, such as the supposed "Flag of Andronikos II Palaiologos" in the Vatopedi Monastery, or a frontispiece of a Bible belonging to Demetrios Palaiologos, the Byzantine double-headed eagle was golden on a red background. Svoronos himself proposed three alternate readings by incorporating the symbol of the cross into the motto: Σταυρὲ βασιλέως βασιλέων βασιλεῖ βοήθει ("Cross of the King of Kings aid the emperor"), Σταυρὲ βασιλέως βασιλέων βασιλευούσῃ βοήθει Staurè basileùs basiléon basileuoúse boéthei ("Cross of the King of Kings aid the ruling city [Constantinople]"), and Σταυρὲ βασιλέως βασιλέων βασιλεύων βασίλευε Staurè basileùs basiléon basileúon basíleue ("Cross of the King of Kings, rule in reigning"), while the Greek heraldist G. Tipaldos rejected Svoronos' reading and suggested that they represented a repetition of the motto Σταυρέ, βοήθει Staurè, boéthei ("Cross, Come to Our Aid"). [27] The representation of the eagle on a shield is an adaptation to Western heraldic practice, however; the Byzantines never used it in this manner for themselves, although they employed it in a Western context, e.g. — Emblem of the Palaiologos Dynasty (1400s) — Έμβλημα της δυναστείας των Παλαιολόγων — The double headed eagle with the sympilema (dynastic cypher) of the Palaiologoi in the center. The single-headed Roman imperial eagle continued to be used in Byzantium, although far more rarely. It is not of Byzantine invention, but a traditional Anatolian motif dating to Hittite times, and the Byzantines themselves only used it in the last centuries of the Empire. The aquila fell out of use with the breaking up of the old legions, the imago was abandoned with the adoption of Christianity, and only the vexillum and the draco are still occasionally attested in the 5th century and beyond. [73][74] In the Byzantine navy, likewise, each ship had its own standard. Constantinople had withstood many sieges and attacks over the centuries, notably by the Arabs between 674 and 678 CE and again between 717 and 718 CE. level 1. Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos or Dragaš Palaeologus (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last Byzantine emperor, reigning from 1449 until his death in battle at the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The history of Byzantine Empire starts with the foundation of Constantinople in many sources. In iconographical evidence, this commonly takes the form of the Chi-Rho embroidered on the field of a vexillum, but literary evidence suggests also its use as a symbol at the head of a staff. Modern approach of the FlagThe official Byzantine Flag, the Double-headed Eagle and other symbols and emblems of Constantinople and the Empire are in use to date from variety of organizations, companies, individuals and even states. [82][83], A further group, collectively known as skeuē (σκεύη), is mentioned in the De Ceremoniis, mostly old military standards handed down through the ages. The two younger sons wear red robes with golden double-headed eagles, Alexios III of Trebizond and his wife Theodora Kantakouzene, wearing a robe with embroidered golden double-headed eagles, Arms of the despots Michael and Philip Palaiologos, envoys to the Council of Constance, by Ulrich of Richenthal[40][41], Seal of Demetrios Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, Banner with the double-headed eagle, used in Western portolans to mark Trebizond in the 14th century, During the Palaiologan period, the insigne of the reigning dynasty, and the closest thing to a Byzantine "national flag", according to Soloviev, was the so-called "tetragrammatic cross", a gold or silver cross with four letters beta "B" (often interpreted as firesteels) of the same color, one in each corner. Charalampos of Thessaloniki @craoftThis image is my personal work, representing ideas for common good and advancement. The Fall of Constantinople marked the … The eagle pre-existed along Anatolia to the Greeks and Hittites and maybe even earlier to the Sumerians. Cross G reek Flag with Haya Sophia ( Ayia Sofia) Constantinoupolis ( Constantinople ).F lag made from 110 gsm Knitted Polyester ( special for outdoor ). It is not certain, however, what the later standards looked like. The flags and symbols in occasions have accepted modernization and evolution. [8] Eagle-topped scepters were a frequent feature of consular diptychs, and appear on coins until the reign of Philippikos Bardanes (r. After taking Constantinople, returning Alexius IV to the throne, the revolt against and murder of Alexius IV left the Crusaders without payment. Another very Western design could be found on one of the now-demolished towers of the seaward walls of Constantinople, which had been restored by Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1282–1328) and bore that emperor's emblem, a crowned lion rampant holding a sword. [76][77], In the late Byzantine period, pseudo-Kodinos records the use of the Palaiologan "tetragrammatic cross" (see above) on the imperial ensign (Greek: βασιλικόν φλάμουλον, basilikon phlamoulon) borne by Byzantine naval vessels, while the navy's commander, the megas doux, displayed an image of the emperor on horseback. Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and everyone. It is safe to identify both as official state flags and there is no debate about. The same, it is also the flag of the Church, to date the double-headed eagle flying all over the churches and monasteries in Greece and still Koine Greek are spoken in liturgy, this is the reason the majority of the population connect more frequently this symbol to the Empire. In addition, the "considerable length of the streamers" shown in the mansucript does not appear in similar sources from areas under direct Byzantine control, but reflects iconography common in southern Italy, where the manuscript was illuminated. Tetragrammatic crossThe "tetragrammatic cross", a gold or silver cross with four letters beta "B" (often interpreted as firesteels) of the same colour in each corner.As an insigne, the cross was already in frequent use in Byzantine since Late Antiquity. All that elements make us who we are and where we want to go from then to now to future. [19] In addition, the double-headed eagle may have been in use in the Latin Empire established after the Fourth Crusade: according to Robert of Clari, the first Latin Emperor, Baldwin of Flanders, wore a cloak embroidered with eagles for his coronation; his daughters used the same device in their arms; and the Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates reports that the Latin emperors struck bronze coins with a double-headed eagle on them. [47][50] It was also adopted in Serbia, with slight changes. The two traditional readings of the four "B"s, Βασιλεὺς βασιλέων βασιλεύων βασιλεύουσιν and Βασιλεὺς βασιλέων βασιλευόντων βασιλεύει (both meaning "King of Kings ruling over the kings/rulers"). Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, "Other Byzantine flags shown in the "Book of All Kingdoms" (14th century)", Guillem Soler's portolan chart of c. 1380, "Présence de l'aigle bicéphale en Trebizonde et dans la principauté grecque de Théodoro en Crimée (XIVe-XVe siècles)", "Zum Thema der Darstellung des zweiköpfigen Adlers bei den Byzantinern", Tetragrammkreuz (article on the tetragrammic cross), Heraldry In Byzantium & The Vlasto Family, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Byzantine_flags_and_insignia&oldid=1000210623, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 03:29. The great Bulgar Khans Krum (r. 802-814 CE) and Symeon (r. 893-927 CE) both attempted to attack the Byzantine capital, as did the Rus (descendants of Vikings based around Kiev) in 860 CE, 941 CE, and 1043 CE, but all failed. συμπίλημα, sympilēma), with the letters of the owner's personal or family name arranged around a cross. Few of them seem to have survived beyond the 4th century, however. Description: Flag of the Palaiologos dynasty with the imperial coat of arms (1259-1453). The flags and symbols in occasions have accepted modernization and evolution.A fine example of modernity and evolution it is how the Byzantine Eagle evolve on from Charalampos of Thessaloniki and even gave a meaning to our times. Mehmed surrounded Constantinople from land and sea while employing cannon to maintain a constant barrage of the city’s formidable walls. hide. [61] On the other hand, the adaptation of Byzantine forms to Western uses can be seen with the seal of Andreas Palaiologos, which includes the imperial double-headed eagle on an escutcheon, a practice never used in Byzantium. For more Greek Flags please check my Listings.    Video Library [87] The dibellion's nature has been debated, but its name – most likely a mixed Greek-Latin compound meaning "double velum" – apparently describes a forked pennon, evidently of Western European origin. Fictional. Thus a late 15th-century French source explicitly refers to them as letters. Byzantine Empire Map At Its Height, Timeline, Over Time. The crosses on top of the crowns means science, knowledge, space exploration in all directions and general preservation of the arts, planet, humans and animals. Archived. As with their land counterparts, they were also used to convey signals. [16], The double-headed eagle has been shown to derive from Central Asian traditions, and spread to the eastern Mediterranean with the Seljuq Turks. It was founded (AD 330) at ancient Byzantium (settled in the 7th cent. Along with the double-headed eagle, the tetragrammatic cross was also adopted as part of their family coat of arms by the cadet line of the Palaiologos dynasty ruling in Montferrat. [43][46][47] On coins, the "B"s were often accompanied by circles or stars up to the end of the Empire, while Western sources sometimes depict the Byzantine flag as a simple gold cross on red, without the "B"s.[48][49] The symbol was also adopted by Byzantine vassals, like the Gattilusi who ruled Lesbos after 1355, or the Latin lords of Rhodes Vignolo dei Vignoli and Foulques de Villaret. [5] A native Byzantine heraldry began to appear in the middle and lower rungs of aristocratic families in the 14th century, coinciding with the decline of imperial authority and with the fragmentation of political power under the late Palaiologan emperors. OFFICIAL STATE FLAG— Official state flag of the Byzantine Empire.The most common Flag, up to date— Flag of the Byzantine and Greek Orthodox Church.

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