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Prince-Infante in Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Enns, Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) reigned as archiduke of Austria from 1521, king of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia from 1526 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1556 till his death. Each was elected by a rival faction, and Hungary remained divided among Ferdinand, Zápolya, and the Ottoman Empire. The younger brother of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, Ferdinand was granted Austria, with the regency of both the Habsburg German lands and Württemberg. [18] This defeat, along with his German ways, made Ferdinand more popular than the Emperor among Protestant princes. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. The Turks failed to take Vienna in 1529 but threatened Austria again in 1532 and 1541. Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. His eldest son, Maximilian, succeeded him in 1564. In the 1540s, the situation changed. During the Ottoman wars the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. Ferdinand and his son Maximilian participated in the victorious campaign of Charles V against the German Protestants in 1547. On 26 May 1521 in Linz, Austria, Ferdinand married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547), daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix. Ferdinand returned in command of his brother's fleet but en route was blown off-course and spent four days in Kinsale in Ireland before reaching his destination. The success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. 123–248). The imperial heir since 1531, he was not finally placated until Charles agreed in 1553 to exclude Philip from the German succession, which then passed to Ferdinand’s son, the future Maximilian II. Other confessions had acquired popular, if not legal, legitimacy in the intervening decades and by 1555, the reforms proposed by Luther were no longer the only possibilities of religious expression: Anabaptists, such as the Frisian Menno Simons (1492–1559) and his followers; the followers of John Calvin, who were particularly strong in the southwest and the northwest; and the followers of Huldrych Zwingli were excluded from considerations and protections under the Peace of Augsburg. Ferdinand II was a member of the House of Habsburg and served as the Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), the king of Bohemia (1617–1619 and 1620–1637), and the king of Hungary (1618–1637). He was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Opposition from the nobles in those realms forced him to concede the independence of these institutions from supervision by the Austrian government in Vienna in 1559. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary (1526–1564). Ferdinand I (10 Mairch 1503 – 25 Julie 1564) wis Holy Roman Emperor frae 1558, king o Bohemie an Hungary frae 1526, an king o Croatie frae 1527 till his daith.. Issue. For example, in 1551 he invited the Jesuits to Vienna and in 1556 to Prague. He married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503-1547) 27 May 1521 JL in Linz, Austria. In 1549, he agreed to support Ferdinand's claim, and Imperial armies marched into Transylvania. This allowed him to increase his power in this realm. Omissions? German, Czech, Slovenian, Slovak, Serbian, Croatian: Ferdinand I.; Hungarian: I. Ferdinánd; Spanish: Fernando I; Turkish: 1. Ferdinand died in Vienna in 1564 and is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. Updates? In that year Ferdinand made peace with the Ottomans, splitting Hungary into a Habsburg sector in the west and John Zápolya's domain in the east, the latter effectively a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ferdinand-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, The Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online - Biography of Ferdinand I. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation and helped lead the Catholic response against what he saw as the heretical tide of Protestantism. [1] [2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. According to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death in 1564. By adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he also grew close to the German territorial princes. In his own possessions, he built a tax system that, though imperfect, would continue to be used by his successors. According to the Augsburg agreement, their religious beliefs remained heretical.[22]. Together with the formation of the Schmalkaldic League in 1531, this struggle with the Ottomans caused Ferdinand to grant the Nuremberg Religious Peace. [2], The Austrian lands were in miserable economic and financial conditions, thus Ferdinand desperately introduced the so-called Turkish Tax (Türken Steuer). For more than three decades he was Charles’s deputy in German affairs, representing him at imperial diets and serving as president of the Reichsregiment (imperial governmental council). Given the settlement of 1521 and the election of 1531, Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor and suo jure Archduke of Austria. In 1547 the Bohemian Estates rebelled against Ferdinand after he had ordered the Bohemian army to move against the German Protestants. His statesmanship, overall, was cautious and effective, well-suited to a medium-sized collection of territories facing dangerous threats. Charles abdicated as Emperor in August 1556 in favor of his brother Ferdinand. Franz von Innerösterreich (1540-1590) and Maria Anna von Bayern (1551-1608) and died 15 February 1637 inVienna, Austria of unspecified causes. [24] This course of events had been guaranteed already on 5 January 1531 when Ferdinand had been elected the King of the Romans and so the legitimate successor of the reigning Emperor. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, the nocturnal North-western quadrant, consisting of the 4th, 5th and 6th houses, prevails in your chart: this sector favours creativity, conception and some sort of specialization or training, with helpfulness and relations as strong components. Hostile toward Protestantism, he bore some responsibility for the Lutheran secession from the Diet of Speyer (1529), and, after he had lost Württemberg to the Lutheran landgrave Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse (1534), he helped the emperor defeat the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in 1546–47. A portrait of Ferdinand I is shown on the reverse of the coin, while on the obverse a view of the Swiss Gate of the Hofburg Palace can be seen. John II Sigismund was also supported by King Sigismund I of Poland, his mother's father, but in 1543 Sigismund made a treaty with the Habsburgs and Poland became neutral. Media in category "Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor" The following 50 files are in this category, out of 50 total. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. A native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. 249–250; Wernham, pp. On 24 October 1526 the Bohemian Diet, acting under the influence of chancellor Adam of Hradce, elected Ferdinand King of Bohemia under conditions of confirming traditional privileges of the estates and also moving the Habsburg court to Prague. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, which in the 1520s began a great advance into Central Europe, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. [1][5] Ferdinand also served as his brother's deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brother's many absences, and in 1531 was elected King of the Romans, making him Charles's designated heir in the empire. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand immediately applied to the parliaments of Hungary and Bohemia to participate as a candidate in the king elections. Philip was culturally Spanish: he was born in Valladolid and raised in the Spanish court, his native tongue was Spanish, and he preferred to live in Spain. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany and developed encouraging relationships with German princes. [3] Ferdinand's motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus: "Let justice be done, though the world perish".[4]. [15] Out of all his countries, the depleted Kingdom of Hungary was, at that time, Ferdinand's largest source of revenue. News of his deposition arrived in Frankfurt on the 28th but Ferdinand didn't leave town until he'd been crowned. Ferdinand shared his customs, culture, name, and even his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon. Since Martinuzzi was by this time an archbishop and Cardinal, this was a shocking act, and Pope Julius III excommunicated Castaldo and Ferdinand. Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary. Ferdinand III (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from February 15, 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. 16th century Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria and Infante of Spain. [21], While these specific failings came back to haunt the Empire in subsequent decades, perhaps the greatest weakness of the Peace of Augsburg was its failure to take into account the growing diversity of religious expression emerging in the so-called evangelical and reformed traditions. Prince Sigismund Augustus married Elisabeth of Austria, Ferdinand's daughter. Initially he followed Charles’s policies almost unquestioningly. In 1556, amid great pomp, and leaning on the shoulder of one of his favourites (the 24-year-old William, Count of Nassau and Orange),[23] Charles gave away his lands and his offices. He married Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574-1616) 23 April 1600 . Born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria, and was baptised as Ferdinand Ernst. [22] Some historians maintain Ferdinand had also been touched by the reformed philosophies, and was probably the closest the Holy Roman Empire ever came to a Protestant emperor; he remained nominally a Catholic throughout his life, although reportedly he refused last rites on his deathbed. A significant number of Utraquists favoured an alliance with the Protestants. Ferdinand I has been the main motif for many collector coins and medals. Ferdinand; Polish: Ferdynand I. But as the army of Suleiman drew nearer he yielded and on 23 July 1532 the peace was concluded at Nuremberg where the final deliberations took place. After suppressing the revolt, he retaliated by limiting the privileges of Bohemian cities and inserting a new bureaucracy of royal officials to control urban authorities. Some of them even went to war against the Empire, and many Bohemian (German or Czech) Protestants or Utraquists sympathized with them.[17]. He was the leading champion of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation and of absolutist rule during the Thirty Years’ War. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand also managed to strengthen his own realm. Media in category "Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor in art" The following 26 files are in this category, out of 26 total. Ferdinand was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain, the second son of Queen Joanna I of Castile from the House of Trastámara (herself the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon) and Habsburg Archduke Philip the Handsome, who was heir to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Empe… [12], In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor. Ferdinand, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, etc. In 1527, soon after ascending the throne, he published a constitution for his hereditary domains (Hofstaatsordnung) and established Austrian-style institutions in Pressburg for Hungary, in Prague for Bohemia, and in Breslau for Silesia. Some Czechs were receptive to Lutheranism, but most of them adhered to Utraquist Hussitism, while a minority of them adhered to Roman Catholicism. The most recent one is the Austrian silver 20-euro Renaissance coin issued on 12 June 2002. The Austrian branch of Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars. Ferdinand proposed that the Hungarian and Bohemian diets should convene and hold debates together with the Austrian estates, but all parties refused such an innovation. He also gathered some humanists, many of whom had a major influence on his son Maximilian. Ferdinand was also a patron of the arts. The war in Hungary continued. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (Holy Roman Emperor, 1503-1564, ruled from 1558) Ferdinand I, empereur germanique, 1503-1564 Ferdinand I, imperatore del Sacro romano impero, 1503-1564 Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Though always overshadowed by his brother Charles V, Ferdinand had become one of the most successful Habsburg rulers of the 16th century, increasing the hereditary possessions of the Austrian Habsburgs significantly and restoring peace to the empire after decades of religious warfare. Ferdinand III, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Higher and Low… Ferdinand was also elected King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, etc. With the death of his grandfather Maximilian I and the accession of his now 19-year-old brother, Charles V, to title of Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Ferdinand was entrusted with the government of the Austrian hereditary lands, roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia. Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria, Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, "Charles, called The Bold, duke of Burgundy", "Ferdinand V. of Castile and Leon and II. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sources. A further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1532 (see Siege of Güns). [10] In return for the throne, Archduke Ferdinand promised to respect the historic rights, freedoms, laws and customs of the Croats when they united with the Hungarian kingdom and to defend Croatia from Ottoman invasion. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. [17] Ferdinand also sought to strengthen the position of the Catholic church in the Bohemian lands, and favoured the installation of the Jesuits there. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother. Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I ) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, king of Bohemia and Royal Hungary from 1526, … Ferdinand I (10 March 1503, Alcalá de Henares, Spain – 25 July 1564, Vienna, Habsburg domain [now in Austria]) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. In foreign affairs Ferdinand was no less successful. Charles's choices were appropriate. In 1554, Ferdinand sent Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq to Constantinople to discuss a border treaty with Suleiman, but he could achieve nothing. Its German population was composed of Catholics and Lutherans. Ferdinand I, (born March 10, 1503, Alcalá de Henares, Spain—died July 25, 1564, Vienna, Habsburg domain [now in Austria]), Holy Roman emperor (1558–64) and king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, who, with his Peace of Augsburg (1555), concluded the era of religious strife in Germany following the rise of Lutheranism by recognizing the right of territorial princes to determine the religion of their subjects. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, making Hungary an Ottoman vassal state. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Label from public data source Wikidata; Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor; Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1503-1564; Earlier Established Forms. Ferdinand was familiar with, and to, the other princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Though lacking resources, he managed to defend his land against the Ottomans with limited support from his brother, and even secured a part of Hungary that would later provide the basis for the conquest of the whole kingdom by the Habsburgs. Notable ancestors includeCharlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), Henry II of … etc. He was first the Archduke of Austria from 1521-1564. [26], Charles' abdication had far-reaching consequences in imperial diplomatic relations with France and the Netherlands, particularly in his allotment of the Spanish kingdom to Philip. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Interested in military matters and participated in his own possessions, he agreed to support 's! Been born in Spain, he also grew close to the eastern Hungarian throne, he! Also converted the elected crowns of Bohemia and Hungary ( 1503-1547 ) 27 1521... 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