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David Ussishkin: "Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochba's Last Stronghold", in: This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:37. The Zionist youth movement Betar took its name from Bar Kokhba's traditional last stronghold, and David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, took his Hebrew last name from one of Bar Kokhba's generals. The Bar Kochba Revolt was in response to Hadrian's plan to rebuild Jerusalem as a Roman _____ , not a Jewish center. By that time the number of Roman troops in Judea stood at nearly 80,000 - a number still inferior to rebel forces, who were also better familiar with the terrain and occupied strong fortifications. As well as leading the revolt, he was regarded by many Jews as the Messiah, who would restore their national independence. Initially, the they took the Romans by surprise and scored some early successes. [9], In 132, the revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from central Judea across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Inside the water system, supporting walls built by the rebels were discovered, and another system of caves was found. Bar Kokhba embraced this possibility and took the title Nasi Israel (prince of Israel). ←Humus sapiens←Talk 01:21, 2 Aug 2004 (UTC) Sexuality. Hostilities broke out in 132. This revolt began as small, spontaneous clashes between Jews and Roman forces. Aharon Oppenheimer, ‘The Ban on Circumcision as a Cause of the Revolt: A Reconsideration,’ Aharon Oppenheimer, התגלית שהוכיחה: מרד בר כוכבא חל גם בשומרון. Many Jews from the diaspora made their way to Judea to join Bar Kokhba's forces from the beginning of the rebellion, with the Talmud recorded tradition that hard tests were imposed on recruits due to the inflated number of volunteers. Unlike the revolt of 66 CE, the historical sources on the Bar Kochba Revolt are scanty at best. [12], The Bar Kokhba revolt resulted in the extensive depopulation of Judean communities, more so than during the First Jewish–Roman War of 70 CE. The Romans lost as many as two legions. Severus' arrival almost doubled the number of Roman troops facing the rebels. More than just a leader, a well respected rabbi. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea or Ancient Israel, he wiped the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina. Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid the numerous mistakes that had plagued the first First Jewish–Roman War sixty years earlier. Tensions continued to build up in the wake of the Kitos War, the second large-scale Jewish insurrection in the Eastern Mediterranean during 115–117, the final stages of which saw fighting in Judea. [9], Historians have suggested multiple reasons for the sparking of the Bar Kokhba revolt, long-term and proximate. The reference to a malevolent Samaritan is, however, a familiar device of Jewish literature. Judea would not be a center of Jewish religious, cultural, or political life again until the modern era, although Jews continued to sporadically populate it and important religious developments still took place there. In the aftermath of the defeat, the maintenance of Jewish settlement in Palestine became a major concern of the rabbinate. The primary non-Jewish sources are an epitome of Cassius Dio’s Roman History and a handful of lines by the ecclesiastical historian Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea. However, Hadrian himself is widely viewed as the one who instigated the final war. After the siege at Masada ended the first war, the Romans deployed a full legion to Judea instead of a small garrison in order to prevent a similar uprising. 2005. With the subsequent withdrawal of Persian forces, Jews surrendered to the Byzantines in 625 CE or 628 CE, but were massacred by Christians in 629 CE, with the survivors fleeing to Egypt. The sacred scrolls of Judaism were ceremonially burned at the large Temple complex for Jupiter which he built on the Temple Mount. [26], After the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province of Roman Judea. Byzantine control of the region was finally lost to Muslim Arab armies in 637 CE, when Umar ibn al-Khattab completed the conquest of Akko. While some claim further resistance was broken quickly, others argue that pockets of Jewish rebels continued to hide with their families into the winter months of late 135 and possibly even spring 136. Hadrian renamed the region Syria Palaestina (Palestine today) in an attempt to dissuade future generations of Jews from reclaiming it. In 363, not long before Julian left Antioch to launch his campaign against Sassanian Persia, he ordered the Jewish Temple rebuilt in his effort to foster religions other than Christianity. Imagine the incredible excitement of those involved in the discovery of the caves when they learned they had finally uncovered the final resting place of Bar-Kokhba and others who were with him. However the Christian population of the city saw this as a threat to their primacy, and a riot erupted which chased Jews from the city. Mohr Siebek et al. Vol. Cave of Horror is the name given to Cave 8 in the Judaean Desert of Israel, where the remains of Jewish refugees from the Bar Kokhba revolt were found. [13][15] However, the Jewish population remained strong in other parts of Palestine, thriving in Galilee, Golan, Bet Shean Valley, and the eastern, southern, and western edges of Judea. carved on the face of a mountain. The 2013 discovery of the military camp of Legio VI Ferrata near Tel Megiddo,[89] and ongoing excavations there may shed light to extension of the rebellion to the northern valleys. Severus arrived in 133. As a widely traveled emperor, he went to Judea in 130 and visited the ruins of the Jewish temple. The Jerusalem Talmud contains descriptions of the results of the rebellion, including the Roman executions of Judean leaders. [93], The Cave of Letters was surveyed in explorations conducted in 1960-61, when letters and fragments of papyri were found dating back to the period of the Bar Kokhba revolt. 2, "Greek Papyri", edited by Naphtali Lewis; "Aramaic and Nabatean Signatures and Subscriptions", edited by. However, there is only circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change and the precise date is not certain. The cave systems were often interconnected and used not only as hideouts for the rebels but also for storage and refuge for their families. 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